The Sykes-Picot Agreement Gave Mandates to the

The Sykes-Picot Agreement: Understanding the Mandates It Gave

The Sykes-Picot Agreement, also known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret agreement signed between France and Britain during World War I. The agreement was named after the French diplomat François Georges-Picot and his British counterpart Mark Sykes, who were instrumental in drafting the document.

The primary objective of the agreement was to divide the Ottoman Empire`s Arab provinces into spheres of influence that would be controlled by France and Britain after the war concluded. The agreement was signed on May 16th, 1916, and it created the following mandates:

1. The French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon

The French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon was the largest mandate created by the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Under this mandate, France was granted control over Syria and Lebanon until their independence in 1946. The mandate included the modern-day territories of Lebanon, Syria, and Hatay (now a province in Turkey).

2. The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (Iraq)

The British Mandate for Mesopotamia, also known as the British Mandate for Iraq, gave Britain control over the territories of modern-day Iraq until its independence in 1932. The mandate also included the territories of Kuwait and the region of Mosul.

3. The British Mandate for Palestine

The British Mandate for Palestine was created under the Sykes-Picot Agreement and gave Britain control over the territory of Palestine, which included modern-day Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, until Israel`s independence in 1948.

4. The French Mandate for the State of Greater Lebanon

The French Mandate for the State of Greater Lebanon was created in 1920 to give France control over the newly created state of Lebanon, which was formed after the Ottoman Empire`s collapse. The mandate ended in 1943, and Lebanon gained independence.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement was heavily criticized for its colonial nature, and it had significant implications for the future of the Middle East. The mandate system created by the agreement led to a rise in nationalism and anti-colonial movements in the region, which ultimately led to the downfall of the mandates and the creation of independent states.

In conclusion, the Sykes-Picot Agreement played a crucial role in shaping the modern Middle East. The agreement gave France and Britain the power to control vast territories in the region, which led to significant political, social, and economic changes. Understanding the mandates created by the agreement is essential for understanding the complex history of the Middle East.

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